Launched in 2010, the Partnership for Market Readiness (PMR) is helping to establish carbon markets in developing, emerging and transition countries. Germany is one of 12 donors in the partnership. The secretariat function is performed by the World Bank. Guided by the needs of the partner countries, the PMR is pursuing various approaches, such as the development of national emissions trading systems or new market instruments (new market mechanisms, CO2 taxes and national certification standards). The PMR functions both as a dialogue forum for technical exchange and as a trust fund for developing, piloting and implementing new carbon market instruments. Its work is also helping create systems for the measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) of emission reductions as well as expanding resources and expertise.