The Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) presents a study that responds to the following questions: Who makes decisions about land use? How are these decisions made? (Who influences who, how and why?) This working document forms part of a series on research about institutions and multi-level decision-making processes. The series aims to provide insights into why efforts to protect forests, such as the initiative for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+), are still far from altering development trajectories. It highlights the importance of understanding the interactions and interests of multilevel governance actors in forestry, climate and land-use policies and practices, and identifies potential paths to follow.